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  • Bunions

    What is a bunion? A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe. The big toe may turn toward the second toe. The tissues around the joint may be swollen and tender. A bony bump at the base of the...

  • Bursitis

    What is bursitis? Bursitis is a painful swelling of a small sac of fluid called a bursa. Bursae (plural of bursa) cushion and lubricate areas where tendons, ligaments, skin, muscles, or bones rub against each other. Doing the same movement over and over or putting continued pressure on a joint...

  • Blood Alcohol Test

    A blood alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol (ethanol) in your body. Alcohol is quickly absorbed into the blood and can be measured within minutes of having an alcoholic drink. The amount of alcohol in the blood reaches its highest level about an hour after drinking. But food in...

  • Cataracts: Questions About Surgery

    When should I consider having surgery? You may want to consider cataract surgery if your vision is blurry or causing other problems that interfere with things you want or need to do each day. Examples include reading and driving. Where should I go for surgery? The most important factor to...

  • Blood Culture

    Blood normally doesn't have any bacteria or fungi in it. A blood culture is a test of a blood sample to find germs (such as bacteria or a fungus) that can cause an infection. A bacterial infection in the blood, called bacteremia, can be serious. That's because the blood can...

  • Intraocular Lens (IOL) Implants

    Here are some examples of when IOLs may be used. To replace a lens after cataract surgery Surgery for cataracts involves removing the natural lens of the eye that contains the cataract. The lens may be replaced with an artificial lens called an intraocular lens implant (IOL). Or you may...

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)

    What is phenylketonuria (PKU)? Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic condition in which the body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine (say "fehn-uhl-AL-uh-neen"), which is a part of protein. This substance is found in breast milk, many types of baby formula, and most foods, especially those with a...

  • Doppler Ultrasound

    A Doppler ultrasound test uses reflected sound waves to see how blood flows through a blood vessel. It helps doctors assess the blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas...

  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

    Discusses oral glucose tolerance test that measures glucose (blood sugar) levels. Explains that test checks for gestational diabetes, prediabetes, and diabetes. Covers the types of tests done and how to prepare for them.

  • Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125) Test

    Discusses cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) test that can help show if some types of cancer are present. Covers its use to check how well treatment for ovarian cancer is working or to see if ovarian cancer has returned. Covers possible test results.


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